• The prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD) was 6% in men and 10% in women in 2002 and is likely to be higher now given the high and escalating prevalence of risk factors.1, 2 The latest prevalence is given in Figure 023.2
  • The prevalence of diabetes is more than 20%, high blood pressure more than 49%, and abdominal obesity is more than 55%, substantially higher than the US.2 (see Heart Disease in the US).
  • Obesity occurs at a young age and has been the driving force behind the age-associated escalation in abdominal obesity, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes over the past two decades.2
  • In the Jaipur Heart Watch, the annual increase of obesity in young adults 30 to 39 years was 0.9% in men and 1.5% in women.3 4 The annual increase in prevalence of high blood pressure was 1.8% in men and 1.6% in women.3 4
  • These high incidence and prevalence of risk factors portents further escalation of the twin epidemics of heart disease and diabetes in India.


1. Gupta R, Gupta VP, Sarna M, et al. Prevalence of coronary heart disease and risk factors in an urban Indian population: Jaipur Heart Watch-2. Indian Heart J. 2002;54(1):59-66.

2. Gupta R, Kaul V, Bhagat N, et al. Trends in prevalence of coronary risk factors in an urban Indian population: jaipur heart watch-4. Indian Heart J. Jul-Aug 2007;59(4):346-353.

3. Gupta  R, Misra A, Vikram NK, et al. Younger age of escalation of cardiovascular risk factors in Asian Indian subjects. BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2009;9:28.

4. Huffman M D, Prabhakaran D, Osmond C, et al. Incidence of cardiovascular risk factors in an Indian urban cohort results from the new delhi birth cohort. J Am Coll Cardiol. Apr 26 2011;57(17):1765-1774.

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