Lipoprotein a


  •  Genetically determined elevations in lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) play an important role in accelerating atherosclerosis resulting in premature heart attack and stroke.1 High level of Lp(a)  appears to be the foremost  risk factor that underlies the extreme prematurity, severity that underlies the malignant heart disease among Asian Indians with and without diabetes. 2-9 For extensive dissertation on Lipoprotein (a) see Lp (a) Chapter.


1. Enas EA, Chacko V, Senthilkumar A, Puthumana N, Mohan V. Elevated Lipoprotein(a)-A Genetic Risk Factor for Premature Vascular Disease in People With and Without Standard Risk Factors: A Review. Dis Mon. Jan 2006;52(1):5-50.

2. Enas EA. Why is there an epidemic of malignant CAD in young Indians? Asian J Clin Cardiol. 1998;1:43-59.

3. Enas EA. Lipoprotein(a) as a determinant of coronary heart disease in young women: a stronger risk factor than diabetes? Circulation. Jan 27 1998;97(3):293-295.

4. Enas EA. Coronary artery disease epidemic in Indians: a cause for alarm and call for action. J Indian Med Assoc. Nov 2000;98(11):694-695, 697-702.

5. Enas EA. Lipoprotein(a) is an important genetic risk factor for coronary artery disease in Asian Indians. Am  J  Cardiol. 2001;88:201-202.

6. Enas EA. Why Indians are more susceptible to Coronary artery disease: Role of specific risk factors In: Chatterjee SS, ed. Update in Cardiology Hyderabad: Cardiology Society of India; 2007.

7. Enas EA, Dhawan J, Petkar S. Coronary artery disease in Asian Indians: lessons learnt and the role of lipoprotein(a). Indian Heart J. Jan-Feb 1997;49(1):25-34.

8. Mohan V, Deepa R, Haranath SP, et al. Lipoprotein(a) is an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease in NIDDM patients in South India. Diabetes Care. Nov 1998;21(11):1819-1823.

9. Hoogeveen RC, Gambhir JK, Gambhir DS, et al. Evaluation of Lp[a] and other independent risk factors for CHD in Asian Indians and their USA counterparts. J Lipid Res. 2001;42(4):631-638.

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