Metabolic Syndrome and Diabetes
- Metabolic Syndrome (MS) confers a 5-fold risk of diabetes in five years (3 components); four or more components greatly increase the risk of diabetes by 25-fold.1-3
- More than 80% of diabetic subjects have metabolic syndrome.
- Patients with diabetes and MS have a substantially higher cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and most Asian Indians belong to this category.4
- Only a minority of African Americans with diabetes have metabolic syndrome.
- About a quarter of total diabetes occurrence and more than 10% of CVD is attributable to the metabolic syndrome. The number of metabolic syndrome components was linearly associated with adverse CVD outcome.5
- The prevalence of MS is as high as 76% to 86% among diabetes subjects in Pakistan.6 This is probably true for India and other South Asian countries as well.
1. Sattar N, Gaw A, Scherbakova O, et al. Metabolic syndrome with and without C-reactive protein as a predictor of coronary heart disease and diabetes in the West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study. Circulation. Jul 29 2003;108(4):414-419.
2. Pajunen P, Rissanen H, Harkanen T, Jula A, Reunanen A, Salomaa V. The metabolic syndrome as a predictor of incident diabetes and cardiovascular events in the Health 2000 Study. Diabetes Metab. Nov 2010;36(5):395-401.
3. Yatskar L, Holper E, Bansilal S, et al. Long-term outcomes in non-diabetic patients with metabolic syndrome undergoing revascularization for multi-vessel coronary artery disease. Atherosclerosis. Jun 2008;198(2):389-395.
4. Mak KH, Ma S, Heng D, et al. Impact of sex, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes mellitus on cardiovascular events. Am J Cardiol. Jul 15 2007;100(2):227-233.
5. Khang YH, Cho SI, Kim HR. Risks for cardiovascular disease, stroke, ischaemic heart disease, and diabetes mellitus associated with the metabolic syndrome using the new harmonised definition: findings from nationally representative longitudinal data from an Asian population. Atherosclerosis. Dec 2010;213(2):579-585.
6. Ahmed N, Ahmad T, Hussain SJ, Javed M. Frequency of metabolic syndrome in patients with type-2 diabetes. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad. Jan-Mar 2010;22(1):139-142.