- Among Asian Americans, Filipinos have the second highest risk of CVD (cardiovascular disease) after Asian Indians.1
- Filipinos have BMI (body mass index)similar to whites and higher than Chinese.2 Waist circumference is a strong predictor of elevated CRP in this population.3
- A study of Filipinos in California (aged 40-86 years) showed a CAD (coronary artery disease) prevalence of 21% of which 86% were newly diagnosed.4
- Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) was highest among Filipinos despite similar BMI and waist circumference as whites although both BMI and waist circumference were weakly correlated in Filipino women than in whites.5
- Prevalence of diabetes was highest among Filipino women at every level of VAT, but VAT did not explain their elevated diabetes risk.5 Socioeconomic disadvantage contributes to the high prevalence of diabetes in Filipinos.6
- Age-adjusted diabetes prevalence was significantly higher in Filipinos (32%) than in white (6%) or African-American (12%) women.5
- Filipinos had no excess of subclinical atherosclerosis despite their significantly higher prevalence of diabetes, the metabolic syndrome, hypertension, and visceral adiposity (Filipino paradox) .7
- Among women without diabetes, the Filipinos had a signiﬁcantly higher prevalence of the metabolic syndrome compared with Caucasians. 50% of these women with diabetes were unaware of the diagnosis.8
- Among without diabetes, Filipino women had signiﬁcantly lower adiponectin concentration compared with Caucasians. Low adiponectin concentration, parental history of heart attack, and microalbuminuria were each independently associated with CVD.7
1. Palaniappan L P, Araneta MR, Assimes TL, et al. Call to action: cardiovascular disease in Asian Americans: a science advisory from the American Heart Association. Circulation. Sep 21 2010;122(12):1242-1252.
2. Palaniappan L P, Wong EC, Shin JJ, Fortmann SP, Lauderdale DS. Asian Americans have greater prevalence of metabolic syndrome despite lower body mass index. Int J Obes (Lond). Aug 3 2010.
3. Rutherford JN, McDade TW, Lee NR, Adair LS, Kuzawa C. Change in waist circumference over 11 years and current waist circumference independently predict elevated CRP in Filipino women. Am J Hum Biol. May-Jun 2010;22(3):310-315.
4. Magno CP, Araneta MR, Macera CA, Anderson GW. Cardiovascular disease prevalence, associated risk factors, and plasma adiponectin levels among Filipino American women. Ethn Dis. Autumn 2008;18(4):458-463.
5. Araneta MR, Barrett-Connor E. Ethnic differences in visceral adipose tissue and type 2 diabetes: Filipino, African-American, and white women. Obes Res. Aug 2005;13(8):1458-1465.
6. Langenberg C, Araneta MR, Bergstrom J, Marmot M, Barrett-Connor E. Diabetes and coronary heart disease in Filipino-American women: role of growth and life-course socioeconomic factors. Diabetes Care. Mar 2007;30(3):535-541.
7. Araneta MR, Barrett-Connor E. Subclinical coronary atherosclerosis in asymptomatic Filipino and white women. Circulation. Nov 2 2004;110(18):2817-2823.
8.Araneta MR, Barrett-Connor E. Ethnic differences in visceral adipose tissue and type 2 diabetes: Filipino, African-American, and white women. Obes Res. Aug 2005;13(8):1458-1465.